Banu Umayya, also known as the Umayyads, were the first Muslim dynasty that ruled over a vast empire from 661 to 750 CE. They were descendants of Umayya ibn Abd Shams, a prominent clan of the Quraysh tribe in Mecca. The founder of the Umayyad caliphate was Muawiyah ibn Abu Sufyan, who was a companion of the Prophet Muhammad and a governor of Syria. He became the caliph after a civil war with Ali ibn Abi Talib, the cousin and son-in-law of the Prophet, who was assassinated in 661.
The Umayyads expanded their domain by conquering new lands and spreading Islam to different regions. They conquered Persia, North Africa, Spain, and parts of Central Asia and India. They also built many monuments and cities, such as Damascus, Cordoba, and Kairouan. They developed Arabic as the official language of administration and culture, and promoted arts, sciences, and literature. Some of their famous achievements include the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem, the Great Mosque of Damascus, and the Umayyad Mosque of Cordoba.
The Umayyads faced many challenges and oppositions from various groups and sects within the Muslim community. Some of them were unhappy with their policies, such as favoring their own clan members over other Muslims, imposing heavy taxes on non-Arabs, and neglecting the religious duties and rights of the people. Some of them also accused them of being corrupt, tyrannical, and deviating from the true teachings of Islam. Some of the most notable revolts against the Umayyads were led by the Kharijites, who rejected both Ali and Muawiyah as legitimate caliphs; the Shiites, who supported Ali's descendants as the rightful successors of the Prophet; and the Abbasids, who claimed to be descendants of Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib, the uncle of the Prophet.
The Umayyad dynasty came to an end in 750 CE, when they were overthrown by the Abbasids in a bloody coup. The Abbasids massacred most of the Umayyad family members and supporters, except for Abd al-Rahman I, who escaped to Spain and established an independent Umayyad emirate there. The Abbasids established a new caliphate that lasted until 1258 CE.
If you want to learn more about Banu Umayya history in Urdu, you can download some PDF books from these sources:
Sadat-e-Banu Umayya ØªØÚØÛ ØØØØØª ØÙÙ ØÙ ÛÛ by Qazi Muhammad Suliman Salman
Banu Umayya History In Urdu Pdf Download 37 by unknown author
The Umayyad dynasty also fostered a rich and diverse culture and society that reflected the various influences and interactions of the people under their rule. The Umayyads adopted many aspects of the Byzantine and Persian civilizations, such as architecture, art, literature, and administration. They also patronized scholars and poets who contributed to the development of Arabic literature, science, and philosophy. Some of the famous Umayyad writers include al-Akhtal, al-Farazdaq, al-Khalil ibn Ahmad, and al-Jahiz.
The Umayyad Caliphate ruled over a vast multiethnic and multicultural population. Christians, who still constituted a majority of the caliphate's population, and Jews were allowed to practice their own religion but had to pay the jizya (poll tax) from which Muslims were exempt[^4^]. They also had to wear distinctive clothing and were subject to certain restrictions and regulations. However, they also enjoyed some privileges, such as protection from external enemies, freedom of movement, and access to education and justice. Many Christians and Jews served as officials, doctors, translators, and merchants in the Umayyad society. Some of them also converted to Islam for various reasons, such as social mobility, economic benefits, or religious conviction.
The Umayyad dynasty faced several challenges and crises that eventually led to its downfall. The most serious one was the Abbasid Revolution (746â750), which was a widespread uprising against the Umayyads led by the Abbasids, a branch of the Hashemite clan that claimed descent from Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib, the uncle of the Prophet Muhammad. The Abbasids gained support from various groups that were dissatisfied with the Umayyads, such as the Shiites, who believed that Ali's descendants were the rightful successors of the Prophet; the Khurasanis, who resented the Umayyad taxation and oppression; and the mawali (non-Arab Muslims), who felt marginalized and discriminated by the Arab-dominated society. The Abbasids defeated the Umayyads in several battles and massacred most of their family members in 750. Only one Umayyad prince, Abd al-Rahman I, managed to escape to Spain and established an independent Umayyad emirate there that lasted until 1031. a474f39169